Epidemiological Investigation of a Yellow Fever Confirmed Case in a Southwest State of Nigeria, 2023

This epidemiological investigation examines a confirmed case of yellow fever in Oyo State, Nigeria, focusing on Irepodun, Alabata ward of Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA). A Rapid Response Team (RRT) engaged relevant stakeholders, conducted active case searches, and assessed vaccination coverage, knowledge levels, and Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Net (LLIN) usage in the area.

A 39-year-old female with symptoms of fever and jaundice reported to a primary healthcare facility, testing positive for yellow fever. Despite prior vaccination in 2020, the patient had no travel history outside Oyo State but reported contact with animals. Akinyele LGA’s profile revealed vaccination coverage disparities, with yellow fever coverage at 85.4%. Active case searches uncovered one additional suspected case, highlighting the importance of surveillance.

Survey results indicated that 70% of Alabata ward residents were vaccinated against yellow fever. Knowledge gaps were evident, with only 20% demonstrating good knowledge of yellow fever. LLIN usage was suboptimal, with 45% having access, 25% using them, and 20% sleeping under them.

These findings emphasize the need for targeted vaccination campaigns, enhanced health education, and LLIN promotion to combat rising yellow fever cases, especially among vulnerable populations, in Oyo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Yellow fever, long-lasting insecticide threated net, vaccination, surveillance, active case search