Radiology is an essential part of medical practice. Since its discovery many years ago, ionizing radiation has been widely used in medicine for both disease diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation has potentially dangerous consequences if not precisely regulated. The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act of 1995 established the legal basis for radiation protection and safety regulations in Nigeria. Due to their expanding involvement in patient management and the growing reliance of other physicians on radiologists for diagnostic and management guidance, there is a growing trend of medicolegal cases against radiologists. These medicolegal cases are mainly due to medical negligence and malpractice, as well as issues surrounding doctor-patient relationships, standards of care, business dealings, lack of informed consent, and poor communication. This article is aimed at examining medicolegal issues in radiology in Nigeria. To advance job satisfaction and avoid medicolegal issues as a radiologist, a good understanding of medical law and ethical standards is crucial. The need for hospitals to establish a legal medicine department or a medicolegal unit, cannot be overstressed.

Keywords: Radiology, Radiologist, Radiation protection, Medicolegal issues.