Impact of climate change on bean cultivation in Foumbot, West region of Cameroon.
Beans, a highly nutritious food, are ubiquitous in Africa as a significant food source of vegetable protein, despite the absence of certain sulfur amino acids. However, this plant faces challenges linked to climatic disturbances, notably excessive rainfall. In 2023, in the Foumbot production basin in the west region of Cameroon, abundant rainfall amount was recorded, peaking in July with 282 mm and in September with 272 mm. These figures correspond to the beginning of the semi-month, just after the corn harvest. This overabundance of rain led to seed rot and leaf diseases. For four months, we conducted a study in four villages, observing and surveying 188 randomly selected farm managers. Our results indicate that farmers who sowed their beans early (60%) recorded yields of less than one tons per hectare, while those who sowed late (40%) achieved yields of 2 tons per hectare. July was the rainiest month on record, favoring plant diseases and pests. Above certain temperature thresholds (25 to 31°C), crop yields fell for the first farmers, as the accelerated plant growth process was accompanied by the production of rotten grains. Up to 70% of bean yields were lost due to early sowing, leading to a significant increase in the market price of this commodity, from 1,000 FCFA to 1,500 FCFA/kg depending on the variety.
Keywords: Climate, Bean, Food insecurity, West Cameroon