CIRURGIA PEDIATRICA, TRAUMA PEDIATRICO – UMA REVISÃO DE LITERATURA PEDIATRIC SURGERY, PEDIATRIC TRAUMA- A LITERATURE REVIEW
Trauma has become an issue of extreme relevance in pediatric health, being the leading cause of death and disability in children and adolescents. Statistics reveal that annually, one in three children is the victim of traumatic events in North America. Trauma accounts for about 10% of pediatric hospital admissions and is associated with approximately 15% of admissions to intensive care units for this age group. Each infant death due to trauma is accompanied by another 40 children requiring hospitalization and 1,000 children needing emergency care and medical evaluation. Run-overs stand out as one of the leading causes of death among children aged 5 to 9 years in the United States, presenting the “Waddell’s triad” – femur fracture, head trauma, and trunk injuries – as a common pattern of injuries in these victims. Drowning is also worrisome, causing deaths and neurological sequelae in children under 4 years of age, affecting survivors with severe and sometimes permanent sequelae. Children are more susceptible to systemic injury due to their lower body mass and still-developing systems, which results in greater energy absorption compared to adults when exposed to trauma. The crucial stage of growth and development of children requires careful attention and protection. Trauma, even seemingly minor, can lead to lasting physical and emotional consequences, affecting learning and healthy development. The article seeks to raise awareness about the importance of prevention, education, and intervention in pediatric trauma, as well as the need for multidisciplinary approaches and public policies based on scientific evidence to protect the well-being of children and young people.
Keywords: trauma; paediatrics; surgery