Comparative analysis of two breast cancer screening programs in patients without risk in Brazil.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence among women in Brazil, so screening is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity rates from the disease. The screening depending on the protocol used. According to the Health Ministry, biannual mammography is recommended for women between 50 and 69 years old, while the Brazilian Society of Mastology recommends annual mammography for all women between 40 and 75 years old.

Methods: This is a retrospective ecological observational study. A National Tracking Database that is publicly available for download was used as a data source. The tests used were performed from 2014 to 2021, with the purpose of screening women with no personal or family risk for breast cancer. The variables analyzed were age group, BIRADSTM results and frequency of examinations.

Results: In the analyzed period, 19.114.091 mammographs were performed in Brazil, 99.80% of which were in women. Of the exams performed in women, 97.46% were performed exclusively as screening and 91.13% in the target population. It was observed that for every 100.000 more mammographs performed in the screening carried out by the Brazilian Society of Mastology, 751 suspected cases of breast cancer were found and that the prevalence of altered results in this group was higher in relation to the group from the Health Ministry. In addition, performing the examination at the correct frequency was higher in the group based on the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Mastology.

Conclusion: The screening proposed by the Brazilian Society of Mastology is more sensitive in detecting suspected cases of breast cancer. In addition, this screening ensures greater adherence of patients to perform the exams at the correct frequency. However, the Tracking proposed by the Health Ministry is considered more economical and financially viable when considering public policy.

Keywords: cancer, breast, mammography, screening